Oils and Fats Update January 2023
Liposomes and oleogels as replacements for solid/saturated fats.
Solid fats contribute to the viscosity, hardness, plasticity, and spreadability of fat-containing food products. The mouthfeel and hardness resulting from the crystal network of fat-containing saturated fatty acids are required and currently irreplaceable in many food products such as puff pastry. The market potential of fat substitutes can be determined by two major factors):
(a) the size of the markets for products in which fat substitutes can be used and
(b) the fat content of the products: the global fats and oils market is estimated at USD 236.7 billion in 2021.
Some of the food matrices replacing conventional oils and fats shortening and spreads include oleogels and liposomes. There is lots of potential in the field of oleogels, but certain drawbacks and a lack of in-depth information in various aspects have delayed their commercialization in the food industry.
Oleogels can be characterized as semisolid systems in which continuous liquid phases are physically immobilized by self-assembled networks of gelators (Under the premise of improving nutrition and the well-being of consumers, oleogels are often structured with healthy liquids oils while exhibiting acceptable solid-like behaviour. Despite the recent exponential growth in the oleogel field, the use of oleogels is still in the early stages of development due to several challenges. These challenges include the food regulations that not only require food grade gelators, but also impose restrictions on gelator concentrations in food products. So far, various oleogels with different classes of gelators have been formulated, but not all of them are food grade.
Sustainable Food Processing,15 September 2020
We are looking to sponsor a fourth year Food Science student in this topic of fat delivery systems and preventing oxidation. Will also include rapid methods of analysis for extraction and oxidation.
Any interest in being involved contact firstname.lastname@example.org
Covid, coffee and blood pressure
Life is getting so miserable. First off, we are told we cannot drink alcohol, now its onto coffee and the topic of high blood pressure.
The blood pressure criteria for this study are slightly different from the ACC/AHA guidelines. Researchers classified blood pressure into five categories: optimal and normal (less than 130/85 mm Hg); high normal (130-139/85-89 mm Hg); grade 1 hypertension (140-159/90-99 mm Hg); grade 2 (160-179/100-109 mm Hg); and grade 3 (higher than 180/110 mm Hg). Blood pressure measures in grades 2 and 3 were considered severe hypertension in this study. New onset hypertension was observed in 18 patients at the end of 31.6 ± 5.0 days on average (P <. 001). These findings may support the assertion that people with severe high blood pressure should avoid drinking excessive coffee,” said Iso. “Because people with severe hypertension are more susceptible to the effects of caffeine, caffeine’s harmful effects may outweigh its protective effects and may increase the risk of Post covid hypertension (including worrying about the world state).
Cardiovascular disease and dyslipidaemia: prevalence and global economic impact
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of mortality worldwide, reaching 31% of deaths in 2012.1 In particular, atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease are the main causes of premature death in Europe and are responsible for 42% of deaths in women and 38% of deaths in men under 75 years old. The global economic impact of CVD is estimated to have been US$906 billion in 2015 and is expected to rise by 22% by 2030.3 Cardiovascular diseases also represent the major cause of disability in developed countries. It has been estimated that their growing burden could lead to a global increase in loss of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), from a loss of 85 million DALYs in 1990 to a loss of approximately 150 million DALYs in 2020, becoming a major no psychological cause of lost productivity.
Lipid-lowering nutraceuticals in clinical practice: position paper from an International Lipid Expert Panel
Arrigo F G Cicero, et.al. Nutrition Reviews, Volume 75, Issue 9, September 2017, Pages 731–767, https://doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nux047
Nobel prize winner
Svante Paabo is a recent Nobel prize winner for his years of research into Neanderthals. What is this got to do with lipids? Well, he is the son of another Nobel Laureate, the Swedish biochemist Sune Bergstrom. He received his Nobel for his pioneering work on prostaglandins back in the 1960’s. This was together with John Vane and Samuellson. In NZ we were fortunate to have him at our international conference in 1983.
Fats for the Future, NZIC Oils and Fats Group,1983.
Avocado Conference in Auckland April 2023
Plans are progressing well for this conference planned for April 2-5 at the Aotea centre. The World Avocado congress is in Auckland 2-5th April 2023.One of the invited speakers is Professor Selina Wang from UC Davis, California USA.
She is a member of the AOCS and is a member of the NZIC Oils and Fats group. She is a research collaborator with Professor, Marie Wong of Massey and Doctor Allan Woolf of Plant and food Research.Dr Laurence Eyres also helps with the science and technology processing of the oil into finished products.
Selina has significant papers in the field of Avocado oil and Olive Oil particularly in her ground-breaking studies on spotting fraudulent and adulterated olive and avocado oil samples.
Researchers Develop Cheaper, More Effective NMR Techniques to Test Olive Oil
A new method to authenticate and locate the origin of olive oil samples is the subject of recent research published in Science of Food.
A team of international researchers successfully verified the grade of unmarked olive oil samples using a single droplet and benchtop-sized equipment.
According to the researchers, their nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method is cheaper and simpler than other methods since it does not require large facilities or a laboratory environment. Additionally, operating the equipment does not require a highly skilled, dedicated technician.
The new method allowed the researchers to correctly identify the 95 olive oil sample grades out of 100. The result is significantly higher than other methods, such as near-infrared spectroscopy (84 out of 100) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (73 out of 100).
The authors said traditional NMR approaches are affected by several drawbacks, such as “costly cryogenic cooling gases and complicated pre-analysis steps.”
More specifically, the new method deploys NMR relaxometry, a proven method to compare olive oil sample microstructures to known benchmarks rapidly.
The analysis is meant to identify the slightest differences among olive oil samples, such as their physiochemical composition or molecular microenvironment. Those differences induce substantial changes in the relaxation mechanism, allowing precise detection.
The researchers also believe their approach can be used to identify olive oil products based on the regions of origin. The scientists noted the novel approach is also faster than other methods as the tiny olive oil samples do not need pre-treatment before analysis.
In their trials, the scientists used the technique to validate the authenticity of extra virgin olive oil and verify virgin olive oils and some refined olive oils. Olive oil samples were collected in Braga, Portugal, and through online sale channels.
The new method allowed the researchers to correctly identify the 95 olive oil sample grades out of 100. The result is significantly higher than other methods,
They added that none of the earlier methods “are simple to use, [they all] require minimal sample preparation, nor present short turn-around time
- Olive Oil Times
Regular use of vitamin D supplement is associated with fewer melanoma cases compared to non-use: a cross-sectional study in 498 adult subjects at risk of skin cancers
There are conflicting results on the role of vitamin D system in cutaneous carcinogenesis. A recent trial of 498 adults was studied and they self-reported their use of Vitamin D supplements. The serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3 was analysed and found that the investigator-estimated risk class of skin cancers was significantly lower among regular users. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3 did not show marked associations with skin-related parameters. The results on 96 immunosuppressed subjects were somewhat similar, although the number of subjects was low. In conclusion, regular use of vitamin D associates with fewer melanoma cases, when compared to non-use, but the causality between them is obscure.( Kanasuo, Emilia; et. al.
Melanoma Research (): CMR.0000000000000870, December 28, 2022. | DOI: 10.1097/CMR.0000000000000870.)
Fish oil and COVID
New research from the University of Manitoba suggests fish oil may lower the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
The supplements would be the first among the non-pharmaceutical approaches to fighting the illness.
SARS-CoV-2 is a strain of coronavirus, which causes COVID-19.
U of M researchers working at the Canadian Centre for Agri-Food Research in Health and Medicine and the St. Boniface Albrechtsen Research Centre discovered animals consuming fish oil have fewer anchor points needed for entry of the virus into the heart, aorta, and kidneys.
Taking fish oil led to a 50 to 75 per cent reduction of a protein called ACE2, which is found on the surface of some cells.
“The virus comes and binds to it, attaches to it, and that allows it to penetrate into the cells and put its DNA in there, and there it replicates or makes more viruses to infect other cells,” explained Peter Zahradka, a researcher and professor of physiology and pathophysiology at the University of Manitoba.
The researchers also plan to explore fish oil’s effects on long COVID.
“If the COVID virus is still having an effect months later by suppressing the ACE2 protein, it may be able to suppress the ability of long COVID to come back,” he said.
Cynically on a clinical trial of one (non-peer reviewed), I found that nothing prevented me getting COVID twice despite having the full doses of the vaccine and despite religiously following a regime of Vitamin D, omega-3 and probiotics..
Also earlier work in Free Radical Biology and Medicine,(2020), 156,190-199
Phthalates in vegetable oils
This article reviews the sources, content, and removal methods of PAEs in edible vegetable oils. It aims to assess the global pollution status of PAEs in edible vegetable oil, provide information and reference for the control of PAEs in edible vegetable oil, and provide future reference for PAEs in edible vegetable oil.
At present, PAEs production accounts for about 80% of the total plasticizer production, and most of them are used as softeners in the plastics industry. It is also used as an insect repellent, a carrier for insecticides, an additive for cosmetics, synthetic rubber, lubricating oil, printing ink, and the like. PAEs are pollutants with a molecular structure similar to hormones. They can enter the human body through skin contact, respiratory tract, and digestive system, which can cause harm to the body. Studies have shown that long-term intake of more than safe doses of PAEs can poison the liver, kidney lung, heart, and reproductive multi-tissue system, among which male reproductive system damage is the most obvious, especially when PAEs are DBP, BBP, and DEHP. Prolonged contact with these substances can lead to male reproductive malformations and testicular cancer.
Nowadays, the main methods to remove PAEs from edible oils are physical adsorption, steam distillation, molecular distillation, and solvent extraction
Review on Occurrence, Sources of Contamination, and Mitigation Strategies of Phthalates (PAE) in Vegetable Oils
09 February 2022
Lipid Expert visit NZ 2024
Professor Eric Decker will be in NZ January 14 to April 13, 2024.He will be spending a sabbatical at the Cawthron Institute in Nelson (NZ) with Dr. Matt Miller. The group is hoping to put together a one-day seminar around his visit to NZ.
Eric is a leading scientist into strategies to inhibit lipid oxidation; Antioxidants; Impact of processing on bioactive lipids; Altering food lipid bioavailability
He has carried out a lot of work with lipid oxidation in different food matrices (dairy, emulsions and meat processed foods)
Eric Decker is currently a Professor and Head of the Department of Food Science at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Dr. Decker is actively conducting research to characterize mechanisms of lipid oxidation, antioxidant protection of foods and the health implications of bioactive lipids. He is a long time member of AOCS and the author of many publications over his career. It will be great to have him in NZ enjoying the Sun whilst the USA shivers in the snow.
Food Science Dept. University of Massachusetts
This will be in Newcastle, Australia, in November 2023. This is just a preliminary notice for diaries. The conference will be 13-15th of November at Noah’s on the Beach Newcastle. Two workshops will also occur on the 13th prior to the opening address and 2022 AAOCS award recipient lecture by Dr Laurance Eyers.